KESADARAN KOLEKTIF

 

Muhammad Nurul Hidayat[1]

Berbicara kesadaran seseorang memang banyak sekali metode-metode yang bisa di tempuhnya, karena kesadaran itu ialah bentuk keterbukaan seseorang dalam hatinya atas apa yang ia rasakan atau yang ia fikirkan, baik itu menimpa dirinya maupun pihak lain.

Terdapat seorang tokoh yang bernama Emile Durkheim. Ia adalah seorang tokoh sosiolog yang memang objek kajiannya perihal ilmu sosial. Ia mengatakan bahwa kesadaran adalah kekuatan moral yang mengikat individu pada suatu masyarakat. Jadi pandangannya mengenai bentuk kesadaran seseorang itu dikarenakan keterikatan seorang manusia dengan adat istiadat maupun norma-norma tertentu dalam sekelompok kaum. Analogi sederhananya seperti kebiasaan seseorang kentut. Semisal si A yang berasal dari Kabupaten Sarang, Jawa tengah. Kebiasaannya dengan teman sebayanya atau di lingkungan rumahnya sudah terbiasa kentut sembarangan karena norma yang berlaku di tempat biasa ia bermain ataupun berkumpul berpandangan bahwa kentut adalah hal yang lumrah dan tidak termasuk sebuah aib. Namun ketika si A berkunjung ke rumah temannya si B yang berada di Kabupaten Bondowoso, Jawa timur. Maka si A harus menyadari adat istiadat atau norma yang berlaku di tempat yang ia singgahi, yaitu kebiasaan kentutnya. Norma yang berlaku di rumah si B ialah kentut itu aib dan orang yang sembarangan kentut berarti ia sudah berbuat hal yang jorok atau tidak senonoh. Dan si A pun harus menyesuaikan diri dengan situasi yang tidak biasa ia lakukan selama ia tinggal di rumah sendiri. Artinya apa? Kesadaran dalam diri seseorang itu akan muncul dikarenakan keterikatan pribadinya dengan norma yang diberlakukan dalam sekelompok orang atau lingkungan tertentu.

Melalui karyanya The Division of Labor in Society (1893). Durkheim mengambil pendekatan kolektivis (solidaritas) mengenai masyarakat. Solidaritas itu berbentuk nilai-nilai, adat-istiadat, dan kepercayaan yang dianut bersama dalam ikatan kolektif. Kebersamaan yang dimaksud tidak harus selalu kumpul bersama atau melakukan sesuatu secara bersamaan, melainkan kebersamaan yang dimaksud ialah paradigma berfikir yang disepakati dan dijadikan sumber nilai hukum atau norma dalam sebuah ikatan kemasyarakatan.

Jadi yang bisa diambil benang merahnya dari pemahaman Durkheim ialah solidaritas dari sebuah ikatan tertentu bisa menjadi salah satu faktor munculnya kesadaran dalam individu seseorang yang telah terikat dengan perkumpulan tersebut untuk menjalani apa yang akan ataupun apa yang sedang dijalaninya.

[1] Mohammad Nurul Hidayat /Alung Merupakan Salah satu Anggota PMII Rayon Fakultas Tarbiyah dan Ilmu Keguruan dari korp MAHABBAH (2016) Jurusan PAI

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